Изобретения фармацевтов: инновации вне фармации

Как правило, различного рода изобретения делают люди в рамках своей основной специальности. И представители фармацевтической отрасли не являются исключением. Однако наш разговор — об изобретениях фармацевтов, сделанных ими вне сферы фармации ИСТОРИЯ С НЕФТЬЮ Когда польский фармацевт Игнаций Лукасевич (1822–1882) был еще молодым служащим львовской аптеки, к нему зашел незнакомый трактирщик и вручил бутылку нефти. Незнакомец предложил сделку: он будет доставлять эту жидкость с неприятным запахом, называвшуюся в то время горным маслом, а молодой фармацевт — гнать из нее водку. Лукасевич проводил исследования по перегонке сырой нефти и после многих неудачных попыток с Lukasevichприменением нефти в масляных лампадах сконструировал прототип керосиновой лампы. Вечером 31 июня 1853 г. в соседнем с аптекой госпитале была проведена срочная операция при свете нефтяных ламп, сконструированных Лукасевичем. Еще одной большой заслугой Лукасевича, ставшего впоследствии одним из наиболее известных филантропов Галичины (он способствовал строительству больниц, школ, дорог, боролся с бедностью и алкоголизмом) была разработка процесса рафинирования нефти, который позволил устранить из нее смолистые вещества. МАСЛО ДЛЯ БЕДНЫХ MezhMuryeВ 60-х годах XIX в. французский император Наполеон III предложил вознаграждение тому, кто создаст более экономичный — ориентированный на потребление вооруженными силами и бедняками, — заменитель коровьего масла. С задачей справился французский фармацевт Ипполит Меж-Мурье (1817–1880). Он изобрел способ каталитического отверждения жидких жиров (растительных жиров или жиров морских животных) и назвал полученный продукт «олеомаргарин» (название потом было сокращено до «маргарина»). «МОЛОЧНАЯ МУКА» Детские молочные смеси появились во второй половине XIX в. благодаря стараниям Nestleшвейцарского фармацевта Генриха Нестле (1814–1890). В то время альтернативы грудному вскармливанию не было, и многие младенцы погибали, в силу разных причин лишившись молока матери. В конце 60-х годов Генриху Нестле в результате экспериментов в своей аптеке удалось создать молочную смесь на основе пшеничной муки, коровьего молока и сахара. Он назвал эту смесь «молочной мукой Генриха Нестле», которая вскоре помогла спасти жизнь недоношенному соседскому малышу. НАПИТОК КОНФЕДЕРАТА Знаменитая «Кока-Кола» была создана в 1886 г. Джоном С. Пембертоном (1831–1888) — фармацевтом из Атланты (штат Джорджия, США). Основными ингредиентами были три Pembertonчасти листьев коки на одну часть орехов тропического дерева колы. Пембертон утверждал, что напиток исцеляет от нервных расстройств, импотенции и пристрастия к морфию (к которому был неравнодушен и сам изобретатель — бывший офицер армии конфедератов). Примечательно, что не менее известная «пепси» была придумана в 1898 г. другим американским фармацевтом — Калебом Брэдхемом. В состав напитка, названного им «Напиток Брэда», входили пепсин и экстракт орехов колы. Как и изобретение Пембертона, «Напиток Брэда» сначала продавался на негазированной воде и содер­жал гуммиарабик в качестве эмульгатора. ТУШЬ ДЛЯ МЭЙБЛ Древние египтянки старательно чернили глаза углем, римлянки покрывали ресницы тонким слоем Maybellinспециального состава на основе пепла лепестков розы, толченых финиковых косточек и сажи. Впоследствии предприимчивые европейки подчеркивали ресницы смесью сока бузины и золы. Современная тушь для ресниц была создана в 1913 г. году американским фармацевтом Терри Л. Уильямсом для его сестры Мэйбл. В начале тушь, представлявшая собой смесь угольной пыли с вазелином, была успешно опробована на девушке, которая хотела с ее помощью очаровать жениха. Изначально распространявшаяся по почте, тушь Уильямса вскоре достигла поистине легендарного статуса в сфере косметики. Популяризации изобретения способствовал кинематограф, и с тех пор усовершенствованная тушь для ресниц поселилась в сумочке каждой женщины. Подготовила Александра Демецкая, канд. биол. наук «Фармацевт Практик» #12′ 2014

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