Нефармацевтичні винаходи фармацевтів

Фармація — це безмежний світ ліків, проте історія фармацевтики повна цікавих фактів та подій, що до медицини, на перший погляд, відношення зовсім не мають. Чи відомо вам, що винаходи, якими ми щодня користуємося, своєю появою завдячують саме фармацевтам?

Сірники

До яких тільки методів добування вогню не вдавались люди! Печерна людина висікала іскри з кременю і сподівалась, що в такий спосіб підпалить сухе листя. Римляни стукали каменем по каменю, а висіченою іскрою намагались підпалити скіпку, вкриту сіркою, терли одну об одну дерев’яні поверхні, аби піймати сонячний промінь крізь шматочок скла. А коли це вдавалось зробити, дбайливо підтримували вогник у глиняних горщиках. matchesІ лише наприкінці XVIII ст. французький хімік Клод Бертолле синтезував речовину, яка згодом отримала назву «бертолетова сіль». Так у Європі в 1805 р. з’явились сірники-«маканки» — тоненькі скіпки, змазані бертолетовою сіллю, які спалахували після занурювання їх у розчин концентрованої сірчаної кислоти. Винаходу перших «сухих» сірників світ завдячує англійському хіміку і аптекареві Джону Уокеру. У 1827 р. він виявив, що якщо на кінчик дерев’яної палички нанести суміш із сурми сульфіду, бертолетової солі та гумміарабіка, потім висушити усе це на повітрі, то під час тертя по наждачному папері сірник доволі легко спалахує. Уокер налагодив невелике виробництво своїх сірників, які запаковував у олов’яні пенали по 100 шт., однак на своєму винаході великих грошей не заробив, оскільки сірники мали жахливий запах. Протягом двох століть удосконалюється винахід Уокера. Сучасні сірники не містять токсичних сполук сірки і хлору, замість них використовують парафіни і безхлорні окисники. Картопля зараз є другим хлібом. Вважається, що до Європи привіз ці бульби з Південної Америки відомий пірат періоду великих географічних відкриттів віце-адмірал Френсіс Дрейк.

Картопля

Впродовж тривалого часу європейці ставились до картоплі з великою недовірою У Франції в кінці XVIII ст. картопляні квіти носили у волоссі, робили з них букети. У Німеччині вирощували картоплю на клумбах перед палацами, але в їжу її не вживали, вважаючи отруйною. До Петербургу за часів правління Петра І було завезено перший Potatoлантух картоплі. Однак побутувало повір’я, що картопля родиться з головою та очима, як людина, і тому їсти її означало їсти людські душі. Багато священиків називали картоплю «чортовими яблуками», якими нібито було спокушено Адама і Єву, і той, хто споживає їх, не побачить царства небесного. Недовіру до картоплі усунув паризький аптекар Антуан Пармент’є. Якось він пригостив вареною картоплею короля Франції і тому дуже засмакувала ця страва. Однак прості люди, як і раніше, уникали споживати «земляні», або «чортові», яблука. Тоді Пармент’є у своєму городі біля грядок з картоплею встановив табличку з проханням …не підходити й близько до рослин. Заборонений плід, як відомо, солодкий, і вже через деякий час усі сусіди хитромудрого фармацевта почали садити картоплю на своїх городах. Після цього Пармент’є зайнявся широкою пропагандою картоплі серед французів, застосовуючи різноманітні рекламні трюки, які згодом стали легендою. Він влаштовував «картопляні» звані обіди, на які запрошував знаменитих осіб. Цікавим є те, що у Бельгії та в США є пам’ятник і музей картоплі. Неможливо не згадати ще і про усім відомий бутерброд: хліб, намазаний маслом, винайшов не хто інший, як аптекар.

Бутерброд

Головним героєм у цій історії виступає великий польський вчений Микола Коперник, який певний час працював в аптеці. Сталося це під час облоги лицарями Тевтонського ордену замку Ольштин. У Butterbrodрезультаті мешканцям замку довелося витримувати тривалу облогу, і зрозуміло, що при великому скупченні народу на обмеженому просторі не обійшлося без епідемії шлункових захворювань. Що б якось зупинити поширення епідемії, Коперник придумав цікаве рішення: були відібрані декілька груп, де люди харчувалися різною їжею. В ході цього експерименту з’ясувалося, що ті, хто не їв хліб, не захворів. А справа в тому, що люди часто кидали хліб на землю і, не надаючи цьому особливого значення, просто обтрушували його… і все. Вирішення цього питання виявилося ще оригінальнішим! Коперник наказав… намазувати хліб маслом для того, щоб коли хліб падав на землю (закон бутерброда — маслом донизу!), з нього можна було легко зняти верхній шар, тобто масло, яке містило бруд, а разом з ним і бактерій. Хвороби припинилися! Отож, як бачимо, джерелом натхненної праці для всіх фармацевтів є любов до обраної професії, прагнення служити людині і берегти її здоров’я. Нехай завжди повняться наші серця гордістю за фармацію, нехай збуваються наші мрії і надії на світле майбутнє України! Оксана Михайлюк, викладач фармацевтичних дисциплін, Чортківський державний медичний коледж «фармацевт Практик» #01′ 2015

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  1. I was growing up in Ondo State in the early 40s through
    the 50s, I observed three major traits about my people.
    (1) They were very hardworking. (2) They embraced agriculture as much as they did education, using funds accruing from
    agriculture to send their children to school. (3) They abhorred cheating,
    either of, or by, others.

    So deep-rooted in the people’s moral conscience was this
    last trait that stealing was viewed as an abomination. That’s why, in those days, it was possible for farmers
    to hang their produce by the roadside and put a certain amount of money in a
    calabash below it. Buyers would match the money and take the produce.

    While today’s unmanned supermarkets are being driven by technology,
    my people’s unmanned markets were driven by moral conscience.loading…

    This ethical standard has been assaulted time and again by politicians.
    That’s why Ondo voters often fought vigorously for
    their mandate, notably in 1965, 1983, and 2007.
    The methods employed in the fight have changed over time.

    It was by sheer physicality (killings and property destruction) in 1965; by a combination of physicality
    and litigation in 1983; and largely by litigation in 2007.

    It is against this background that I have consistently advocated the need to
    move away from thuggery and violence. The advocacy was underscored by my personal experience of thuggery in my hometown early this
    year, as politicians began to strategise for the 2016 governorship election.

    These observations and experiences led to my intervention in the struggles for
    the governorship ticket of the two major political parties in the 2016
    governorship election (see, especially, «Ondo politics: The good, the bad, and the ugly?», The PUNCH, October
    18, 2016, and «Why Ondo should not burn», The PUNCH, November 1, 2016).

    Those who were not pleased with my interventionist essays ignored the historical background I
    just sketched above. Whether my intervention meant anything to
    the electoral process matters no more. What
    matters is that the election had come and gone with minimal violence,
    and there was no post-election violence.

    Rotimi Akeredolu (SAN) of the All Progressives
    Congress won so convincingly that any attempt to litigate his
    victory would amount to a waste of scarce resources and precious judicial time.

    With the election behind us, it is time to move forward as the future of Ondo State is now at stake more than ever before.
    The bleakness of the state’s future is underscored by a lot of debt to be paid far into the future;
    several months of arrears of salaries and entitlements owed to workers and
    pensioners; unsustained attention to agriculture; the absence of manufacturing industries to absorb the increasing number of
    graduates from the state’s four higher institutions; and dwindling resources to meet these obligations.
    That’s why anyone who wishes the state well should join hands
    with the incoming governor so he can hit the ground running, without
    any distraction, from day one.

    In what follows, I provide an outline of what needs to be done in four major areas which touch directly on the people’s lives and livelihood.
    They are: agriculture, health care, education, and industrialisation. True, the outgoing governor did all he
    could in these sectors before running into the brick wall of
    dwindling resources, much more still needs to be done.

    Investment in agriculture, the mainstay of the state’s economy, should go beyond maintaining
    a tradition. It is also an investment in food security and
    a means of creating employment for the teeming youth population. Attention should be given to the creation of agricultural value chains for major products,
    especially cocoa, yam, and plantain. Apart from the Cocoa Product (Ile-Oluji) Limited, which processes
    only a fraction of the state’s cocoa produce, there are no other notable or functioning factories to process other agricultural products.

    That’s why I cringe when trucks line up every five
    days at the Atosin end of Alade Market in Idanre to move tonnes of plantains to sell them at higher prices in other
    locations. I have a similar reaction to the sale of yams by farmers in Owo Local Government
    Area, who even have no means of preserving their products.
    Why not improve on the agro-industry initiative of the outgoing government
    to create employment? How about establishing factories for processing
    yam and plantain into flouxr? And what about investing in semi-mechanised agriculture to
    increase production?

    True, Governor Olusegun Mimiko excelled in certain specific areas
    of health care, particularly the reduction of maternal and
    infant mortality, by establishing the Abiye and Agbebiye programmes and the
    Mother and Child Hospitals. He also established a complex of facilities that formed the nucleus of the University of Medical Sciences in Ondo.

    Unfortunately, however, this was achieved at the expense of other
    health care facilities throughout the state,
    especially primary care facilities and the State Specialist Hospitals.

    The incoming governor should make up for these deficiencies in order to sustain health care in the state over the
    next four years.

    The education sector needs special attention. The outgoing government
    focused on primary and tertiary education, with much less attention to secondary education. The mega schools and free buses for primary school children are laudable projects to be maintained
    and improved upon. However, secondary education has not been that lucky.
    But for interventionist workshops for teachers of English and
    Mathematics, perhaps Ondo students would still have continued to
    perform poorly in school leaving certificate examinations.
    More teachers need to be hired; more needs to
    be done on capacity building for teachers; and greater attention should be paid to curriculum development at primary and secondary
    levels, including the supply of reading materials.

    Perhaps, the greatest educational albatross for the state is
    the quartet of higher institutions – three universities and a polytechnic.

    For quite some time now, the state has not been able to meet its financial obligations to these institutions.

    A two-pronged strategy of cost-cutting and fund generation must immediately
    be put in place. There is no space here to go into the details.

    What needs to be emphasised here is that the state can no longer sustain the
    illusion of free primary and secondary education and low tuition in the higher
    institutions. The funds are simply not there. Besides, all over the world, and especially in the
    United States with which I am most familiar, universities have continually increased tuition and other fees
    to make for shortfalls in state subventions.
    Today, in many American public universities, internally generated revenue,
    largely from tuition, has outstripped state subvention.

    True, increasing tuition has become a serious political issue in Nigeria, because politicians
    made it so. Nevertheless, it is now necessary to increase tuition in all higher institutions in the
    state, and it is possible to achieve if the appropriate personnel are deployed, if proper consultations are held with major stakeholders,
    and if the right methods are used.

    The lip service often paid to industrialisation during election campaigns at least demonstrates its importance.
    True, industrialisation is capital intensive; but the state could at least begin with alliances with the Bank
    of Commerce and Industry, private partners, and foreign investors to set up appropriate factories to process locally produced
    raw materials across the state. If the Ile-Oluji Cocoa factory
    could surmount infrastructural challenges and keep producing,
    then it is worth emulating.

    Finally, the most immediate challenge for the incoming governor is the payment of salaries.

    Whatever arrangements are being made regarding the payment
    of salary arrears, it is important for the incoming governor to make the regular payment of salaries a priority.
    The starting point is to eschew wasteful spending and explore
    avenues for generating more revenue. Above all, the civil service needs to
    be pruned and political appointments kept at the barest minimum in order to reduce the state’s wage bill.

    Copyright PUNCH.

    All rights reserved. This material, and other digital
    content on this website, may not be reproduced, published, broadcast,
    rewritten or redistributed in whole or in part without prior express written permission from PUNCH.

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